ALEXANDER POPOV AND THE NOBEL PRIZE
N.A. Borisova, The A.S. Popov Central Museum of communications, deputy director for science, Ph.D.; firstname.lastname@example.org
The inventor of wireless telegraphy Alexander S. Popov (1859−1906) was not a Nobel Laureate. The first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1901. At those times the rule of «the previous year» was in action, meaning that the invention had to be «fresh». Popov’s 1895 invention turned out to
be premature. Popov’s works performed at the beginning of the 1900s met the requirements of the Nobel Charter, but they have never been nominated. Italian businessman Marconi and German scientist Brown got the Nobel Prize in physics for development of wireless telegraphy in
1909 (after Popov’s death). The practice of awarding the Nobel Prize in physics in 1901−1909 is analyzed.
Keywords: Alfred Nobel’s will, Nobel Prize, wireless telegraphy, Alexander Popov, Guglielmo Marconi, Ferdinand Braun.
THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS/ICT STATISTICS. UNSOLVED PROBLEMS. PART II
N.P. Reznikova, FSUE Radio Research & Development Institute (NIIR), chief scientific officer, professor, Dr.Sci.(Econ.); reznikova. email@example.com
G.S. Artemieva, Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics (MTUCI), department of management, associate professor, Ph.D.; firstname.lastname@example.org
D.V. Kaliuga, FSUE NIIR, deputy head of the laboratory of the analysis of EMC; email@example.com
The «brief history of the future» — development of processes related to the formation of concepts, methods, and indicators for measuring different aspects of telecommunications/ICT activities, in which the International Telecommunication Union plays a leading or one of the main roles, is presented.
Keywords: statistical measurements, statistical capacity, telecommunications/ICT, ITU, indicators, indices, information society, international comparisons.
METHOD FOR DEVELOPING A COMMUNICATION NETWORK BASED ON D2D TECHNOLOGIES USING ADDITIONAL ROUTERS
A.S. Borodin, representative of PJSC Rostelecom in ITU, Ph.D.; Aleksey. firstname.lastname@example.org
A.E. Koucheryavy, The Bonch-Bruevich Saint-Petersburg State University of Telecommunications (SPbSUT), head of the department of communication networks and data transmission, professor, Dr.Sci.(Tech.); email@example.com
A.I. Paramonov, SPbSUT, department of communication networks and data transmission, professor, Dr.Sci.(Tech.); firstname.lastname@example.org
The method for developing a wireless network of terminals using D2D technologies is proposed. The selection of points of additional routers location and their quantity is carried out on the basis of the clustering algorithm. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the signal-to-interference ratio and takes into account theintra-channel interference produced by user terminals. The proposed method allows calculating the number of additional routers and their placement points based on the data on the location of user terminals and the power of their transmitters.
Keywords: wireless network, device to device communications, D2D, traffic routing, throughput, signal to interference ratio.
MODELS OF RESOURCE SEGMENTATION AND CLUSTERING IN SOFTWARE-DEFINED NETWORKS
Muhizi, SPbSUT, department of communication networks and data transmission, postgraduate; email@example.com
A.A. Ateya, SPbSUT, department of communication networks and data transmission, postgraduate; firstname.lastname@example.org
A.S. Muthanna, SPbSUT, department of communication networks and data transmission, associate professor, Ph.D.; email@example.com
R.V. Kirichek, SPbSUT, department of communication networks and data transmission, associate professor, Dr.Sci.(Tech.); firstname.lastname@example.org
Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is a relatively new paradigm in network development that provides many advantages over traditional networks. That is why SDN, as one of the 5G/IMT-2020 main technologies, allows network management optimization in a more efficient and flexible way by separating the control level and data transfer level to simplify network administration and control. The properties of software-defined networks are considered. The article discusses the use of several distributed controllers to solve challenges related to the use of a single centralized controller. It allows achieving higher reliability and scalability of the system. The algorithm for dynamic clustering that more efficiently handles the load balancing in the network and thus ensures efficient segmentation of resources is proposed.
Keywords: software-defined networks, SDN controller, load balancing, dynamic clustering.
AUGMENTED REALITY SERVICE USER MOTION MODELING
M.A. Makolkina, SPbSUT, department of communication networks and data transmission, associate professor, Ph.D.; email@example.com
A.I. Paramonov, SPbSUT, department of communication networks and data transmission, professor, Dr.Sci. (Tech.);firstname.lastname@example.org
A.E. Koucheryavy, SPbSUT, head of the department of communication networks and data transmission, professor, Dr.Sci.(Tech.); email@example.com
This paper presents the study of the impact of the augmented reality (AR) services user behavior on the traffic properties. A detailed analysis of the factors affecting traffic parameters has been carried out. The model of the user’s movement as one of these main factors is considered. Generalized motion model was constructed; it can be useful in modeling or implementing the AR services.
Keywords: augmented reality, traffic, quality of service, user behavior, motion model.
METHOD OF IDENTIFICATION OF DEVICES AND APPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS IN HETEROGENEOUS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS BASED ON DIGITAL OBJECT ARCHITECTURE
M.S. Al-Bahri, SPbSUT, the department of communication networks and data transmission, postgraduate; firstname.lastname@example.org
The article analyzes the method of identification of devices and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) in heterogeneous communication networks based on digital object architecture (DOA). Methods of installing the DOA identifier into IoT devices with various wireless
modules are considered. In order to improve the security of transmitted data, it is proposed a security model of a resolution system, which allows decreasing the number of service messages between internetworking elements and reducing network latency. Conclusions of possible methods of DOA modernization in order to improve the quality of service are made.
Keywords: digital object architecture, DOA, interoperability, Internet of Things, Handel system, security, wireless communications network technologies.
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SAFETY CONCEPT BASIC ASPECTS OF ADVANCED 5G/IMT2020 MOBILE NETWORKS
M.Yu. Maslov, Samara Branch of Radio Research & Development Institute (FSUE Branch NIIR-SONIIR), head of the Scientific and educational center, associate professor, Ph.D.;
Yu.M. Spodobaev, FSUE Branch NIIR-SONIIR, chief researcher, professor, Dr.Sci.(Tech.); email@example.com
M.Yu. Spodobaev, FSUE NIIR, first deputy general director, Ph.D.; firstname.lastname@example.org
Basic aspects of electromagnetic safety of perspective radio networks are presented. On the basis of the system and historical approach, the current state of the «electromagnetic safety of systems» area is described. Reasons for a contradiction of perspective technologies and practice of electromagnetic examination are discovered. Ways of resolving these contradictions at the present stage of development of information and communication technology are outlined.
Keywords: electromagnetic safety, telecommunication systems, sustainable development, state regulation, risk-focused management, methodology of overcoming a crisis situation, electromagnetic monitoring, electrodynamics modeling, influence rationing, ecological legislation, decrease in social tension.
ELECTROMAGNETIC SAFETY: CRITICAL FEATURES OF 5G NETWORKS
M.Yu. Maslov, FSUE Branch NIIR-SONIIR, head of the Scientific and educational center, associate professor, Ph.D.; email@example.com
Yu.M. Spodobaev, FSUE Branch NIIR-SONIIR, chief researcher, professor, Dr.Sci. (Tech.); firstname.lastname@example.org
M.Yu. Spodobaev, FSUE NIIR, first deputy general director, Ph.D.; email@example.com
Structural, functional and information analysis of the current situation in electromagnetic safety of telecommunication systems is proposed. Special attention is paid to the advanced 5G networks. The basic input data allowing to estimate qualitatively and quantitatively the
electromagnetic environment created by 5G networks are defined.
Keywords: 5G standard, electromagnetic safety, frequency and range properties of equipment, network topology, power of transmission devices, antenna systems, antenna placement, harmonization of standards.
IMPACT OF MOBILE PHONES OF CELLULAR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS ON A YOUNG BODY
Yu.B. Zubarev, JSC MNITI, advisor to the general director, professor, corresponding member of the RAS; firstname.lastname@example.org
Researches of scientists from different countries of the impact of mobile phone’s electromagnetic field on human health are considered. On the basis of obtained results, the analysis of the impact of the electromagnetic field on children, teenagers, and a human embryo is carried out.
Keywords: electromagnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, mobile phone, mobile terminal, cellular communication systems, radio frequencies, base station.
MODEL-EXPERIMENTAL DETECTION OF FAULTS ON OVERHEAD POWER TRANSMISSION LINES BY THE LOCATION METHOD
V.A. Kasimov, Kazan State Power Engineering University (KSPEU), department of engineering cybernetics, associate professor, Ph.D.; email@example.com
R.G. Minullin, KSPEU, head of Scientific laboratory «Location diagnostics of power lines», professor, Dr.Sci.(Phys.- Math.); firstname.lastname@example.org
Yu.V. Piskovatskiy, KSPEU, department of relay protection and automation of electric power systems, associate professor, Ph.D.; email@example.com E.Yu. Abdullazyanov, KSPEU, Scientific laboratory «Physical and chemical processes in electrical installations», chief
researcher, Ph.D.; firstname.lastname@example.org
Location sensing of overhead power lines allows determining the distance to the point of damage with high accuracy. Simulation modeling of the propagation of pulsed signals along high-frequency paths of a line in different situations and with various types of wire damage allows selecting the optimal modes of diagnostic radar sensing. Examples of simulation modeling of various damage of wires, accompanied by their experimental verification, are given. Modeling is carried out in the PSCAD software environment. Model and experimental reflectograms are comparable with each other.
Keywords: overhead power transmission lines, high-frequency section, location method, damage location, short circuit, wire breakage, simulation modeling, experimental verification.
THE PROBLEM OF THE TERM «RADIOTECHNICS»
Yu.E. Polsky, Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev (KNPTU-KAI), department of radioelectronic and quantum devices, professor, Dr.Sci.(Phys.-Math.).
D.P. Danilaev, KNPTU-KAI, department of radio-electronic and quantum devices, associate professor, Dr.Sci.(Tech.); d. email@example.com
S.S. Loginov, KNPTU-KAI, department of radio-electronic and quantum devices, professor, Dr.Sci.(Tech.); firstname.lastname@example.org
The term «radiotechnics» originated a long ago. It is closely connected with the «radio». However, now this term is applied to a wider class of devices and systems because of the development of the new element base, methods of signal generating and processing, and mul tifunctional devices. The term «radiotechnics» is interdisciplinary in nature. At the same time, well-known definitions of «radiotechnics» lose relevance and require reconsideration. Is it possible to use this term in the same context or is it better to use more precise terms? It is shown that this problem is relevant primarily for the education system. It is necessary to define more clearly the radio engineering boundaries as a sphere of science and professional activity. This is important, among other things, for its clearer structuring in related areas, for establishing appropriate links and for expanding the subject of study and research.
Keywords: radiotechnics definition, radiotechnics term, area of radio engineering.
ACCESS INTEGRATION UNDER NETWORK CONVERGENCE
A.S. Adjemov, MTUCI, president, head of the department of general communication theory, professor, Dr.Sci.(Tech.); email@example.com
A.N. Avdeev, Firma «AS» LLC, chairman of the board; firstname.lastname@example.org
A.K. Levakov, PJSC Rostelecom, deputy director of macroregional branch «Center» — technical director, Ph.D.; email@example.com
V.A.Shargaev, Firma «AS» LLC, project manager; firstname.lastname@example.org
It is proposed a new principle of organizing the transmission of text, audio and video messages, as well as data. Integrated access is considered as a model of future interaction of user and network.
Keywords: convergence, integrated access, user, network, service, quality of service, «extended messenger».